Valikko Sulje

Sleep and dreaming


Tentaattorit: Kronholm & Valli

Sleep (answer to three questions):

1. How can simple rest be distinguished from behavioural sleep?

2. Describe (briefly) the main differences between the passive and active theories of sleep and wake regulation.

3. What is the basic underlying function of sleep in all animal species according to the Energy Allocation (EA) Model of sleep? In light of this supposed function, how are the specific features of REM sleep explained?

4. What kind of arguments you can list supporting the role of sleep in brain’s emotional regulation?

5. Epidemiological studies have shown that among the adult general population long sleepers (self-reported sleep duration more or equal to 9 hours) have increased mortality risk when compared to 7-8 hour sleepers. What kind of reasons (causes) might be underlying this association?

Dreaming (answer to three questions):

1. Describe methods that can be utilised to collect dream reports and list their pros and cons.

2. What are the problems of making correlations between dreaming and dream content vs. REM sleep neurophysiology, neurochemistry and brain imaging results?

3. Compare the Social Stimulation Theories and the Threat Simulation Theory – what similarities and differences the theories have?

4. List factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic insomnia.

5. Explain what parasomnias are. List the main types of parasomnias and their general features.



Tentaattorit: Kronholm & Valli

Sleep (answer to three questions):

1. How can simple rest be distinguished from behavioral sleep? (If you could not make polysomnographic recordings)

2. What is meant by statement that sleep can be considered both as a local and a global (whole organismic level) process?

3.  The general working principle of the biological clock at cellular level is the same in all animals. Describe that working principle briefly.

4. Sleep is stated to have a role in brains emotional regulation. What kind of arguments you can list to support that statement? List arguments from clinical practice, from apidemiological, and experimental studies.

5. Epidemiological studies have suggested that exceptionally short and/or exceptionally long self-reported sleep duration is associated with several adverse health outcomes ( health and functional risks). What kind of risks there are? Name so many of them as you can.

Dreaming (answer to three questions):

1. How REM sleep brain activity patterns and many formal features of dreams are compatible? What are the problems of making correlations between REM sleep brain maps and dream content?

2. Descripe what kinds of methods can be used to study dream content.

3. Explain what is lucid dreaming, and how lucid dreaming can be used to verify that dreams are a real phenomenon occuring durin sleep.

4. Explain the psychological emotional problem solving theory of the function of dreaming according to which dreams have a psychotherapeutic funtion (Hartmann)

5. List the behavioral and polysomnographic characteristics of narcolepsy.